Let's talk about carbide and other pull through systems.
First thing we have to address is what is an edge and how is it made sharp.
An edge in knife terms is where 2 sides of the blade come to a point this point is called an apex, the apex is only able to come to a true point if both sides are ground to the complete edge terminating correctly.
This is achieved by grinding from the top down to the edge.
Your home pull through is unable to do this whatsoever, as it is grinding along the length of the blade meaning you will never reach a true apex and will generally be doing more damage than good and wasting the life of your knife.
How bad is it?
Well in terms of carbide its extremely bad. Its tearing strips out of the edge not only making it blunt,
but it can also do it up to a millimeter above the edge causing it to act similar to perforations and causing the edge to just break off.
In terms of a ceramic its usually on a much more mynute scale so its generally not as bad.
We use ceramics both in sharpening and touch up, but its how we use them that makes all the difference.
That scratch pattern made are called "striations" this is what gives you a nice keen and bity edge.
This type of edge will bite straight into the item you are cutting not allowing it to slip off the object to cut cleaner, with far less effort and also faster.
This is achieved properly with both handstones and rotating stone sharpeners, you can also use rods either steel or ceramic to clean up the edge and bring it back a certain percentage to save going to the stone every time.
Personally I prefer ceramics as they are usually gentler but you still have to watch how even you pressure is.
You can apply the striations either on a 45 degree or 90 degree angle to the edge. At 45 degrees it is preferred to have them top to bottom tip to handle of the edge this will allow them to bite in more effectively on draw cuts.
Once the grind is done we will finish by deburring the edge and honing it with all different types of things form compounds and balsa wood or leather or some people even finish on extremely fine stones too.
This is where the next level of sharpness happens taking it to the maximum of the steels capabilities. It's an enormous jump and one that should always be done by any proficient sharpener.